The source of this Bariatric Surgery Glossary is the Bariatrics Lounge Blog. However, this page does not mirror the frequent updates and additions. So, for the most up-to-date version, please visit the Bariatric Surgery Glossary
A.M.I Soft Gastric Band: A type of adjustable gastric bands that is produced by the Austrian Agency for Medical Innovations Ltd. It is not available in USA.
Abdominoplasty: Also called "Tummy Tuck", is a plastic (cosmetic, aesthetic) surgical procedure that involves dissection and preservation of the umbilicus itself, and a more extensive skin mobilization and more aggressive skin removal than panniculectomy. A complete abdominoplasty also includes tightening of the abdominal wall muscles. This is not considered a "Weight Loss (=Bariatric) Surgery"
Adjustable Gastric Band: A weight loss surgery tool that is essentially a band with an inner balloon. It is placed by a laparoscopic surgical procedure. The band is folded and locked around the top-most part of the stomach to produce a constriction, between a small pouch of the stomach above the band, and the rest of the stomach. The balloon is connected to a small reservoir that sits under the skin via a narrow tube. By adding or removing saline from the reservoir, the balloon of the band can be inflated or deflated. hence, the band is adjustable. Types of adjustable bands in no particular order: the Lap Band, the Swedish Adjustable Band (and the REALIZE Band), the Heliogast Band, the Bioring Band, the Midband, the A.M.I Soft Gastric Band, the MiniMizer band
Anastomosis: Surgical connection of two hollow organs or parts of an organ, allowing their lumina(cavities, plural of lumen) to be open to each other and to be continuous with each other. Example: A gastro-jejunal anastomosis means an anastomosis between the lumen (cavity) of a part of the stomach (gastro-) and the part of the small intestine called jejunum (jejuno-), providing an opening between their cavities to each other.
Arm lift: See "Brachioplasty".
Balloon: See "Intragastric Balloon"
Bariatric Surgery: Same as "Weight Loss Surgery". See "Weight Loss Surgery"
Bariatrics: The branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. (Baros = weight. -iatrics = healing. Origin: Greek)
Bioring Band: A type of adjustable gastric bands that is made by "Cousin", France. It is not available in USA.
Body Contouring: (also known as "body lift", "body shaping" or "body reshaping") This is a group of plastic surgery procedures performed after massive weight loss, to manage hanging excess skin. Patients have to have reached a stable plateau weight before any such plastic surgery procedures. The person should have achieved a stable weight after the maximum weight loss, and be in good health and not planning on becoming pregnant.
Body Mass Index (BMI): The weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared. Using pounds and inches, the formula is BMI =(weight in pounds x 703)/squared (height in inches). The Body Mass Index(BMI) formula was developed by Belgian statistician Adolphe Quételet (1796-1874), and was known as the Quételet Index. BMI Categories: Underweight = <18.5 ; Normal weight = 18.5-24.9 ; Overweight = 25-29.9 ; Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
Brachioplasty: Also called "Arm Lift" is a plastic (cosmetic, aesthetic) surgical procedure that involves removing excess or loose skin and fat from the upper arms.
Colon: Also called the "large intestine" or "large bowel" is the part of the intestines that extends after the small intestine and ends at the rectum. Its parts, from proximal to distal: the cecum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid (pelvic) colon.
Excess Weight: The individual's current weight minus the ideal body weight for the height, gender and body frame.
FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
French Band: The following are the types of adjustable gastric bands produced in France in alphabetical order: the Bioring band, the Heliogast Band, and the Midband.
Gastric Balloon: See "Intragastric Balloon"
Gastric Bypass: A type of bariatric (weight loss) surgery. A surgical procedure that includes stapling (usually, with dividing)the stomach into a small part called the "pouch", to separate it from the rest of the stomach. The intestine is divided, attached to the pouch, and re-arranged in a Y-shaped configuration (Roux-en-Y). The final result is that the majority of the stomach, and the uppermost portion of the small intestine, are bypassed.
Gastric Pacemaker: See “Implantable Gastric Stimulator”.
Gastric Stapling: Although stapling techniques are used in several bariatric and non-bariatric operations, the term "gastric stapling" is usually applied to a particular bariatric surgical procedure, that is "vertical banded gastroplasty" (VBG). The procedure includes warding off a small portion of the top-most part of the stomach (called the pouch) from the rest of the stomach, using surgical staplers. The pouch opens to the rest of the stomach via a very small opening (ostium)
Gastric: (Greek) Related to the stomach
Gastroparesis: A condition in which the stomach loses, partially or completely, the ability to contract and empty. The mainstay of the diagnosis is a delayed gastric emptying. The most common causes are diabetes and idiopathic (of unknown cause).
Heliogast Band: A type of adjustable gastric bands, manufactured by Hélioscopie, Vienne Cedex, France. It is not available in USA.
Implantable Gastric Stimulator (IGS): Also called "Gastric Pacemaker". A device that is implanted to generate electric stimulation to the stomach wall. The Enterra Therapy System (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) is currently the only gastric electrical stimulator that has received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Gastric pacing or gastric electrical stimulation is indicated for the treatment of symptoms of nausea and vomiting from chronic gastroparesis that is refractory to medical management. There is no available FDA-approved obesity treatment gastric stimulation in the USA. Medtronic acquired Transneuronix company which manufactured the Transcend II Gastric Stimulator. On Dec 8, 2005, Medtronic, Inc. announced that the preliminary results of the Screened Health Assessment and Pacer Evaluation (SHAPE) trial, did not meet the efficacy endpoint of a difference in mean excess weight loss at one year. The company is not making the IGS available for obesity surgery world-wide. The results of the "Appetite Suppression Induced by Stimulation Trial" (ASSIST) study which evaluates Medtronic's IGS therapy in obese patients with type 2 diabetes are not out yet. The first gastric stimulator for the treatment of morbid obesity was implanted by Dr. Valerio Cigaina in Italy, in 1995.
Intragastric Balloon: The BioEnterics® Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) System is manufactured by Inamed, a division of Allergan, Santa Barbara, California, USA. It is designed to provide short-term weight loss therapy. BIB is placed endoscopically and is inflated with saline. It is made of silicone, and contains no latex. The concept is to partially fill the stomach to help with portion control. The BioEnterics® Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) System is not currently approved for sale in the USA. It is exported to the global market, though.
Lap Band: A type of adjustable gastric band that is manufactured by Inamed Health (formerly BioEnterics®) which is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Allergan, Santa Barbara, California, USA. The Lap Band was approved by the FDA in June 2001. A laparoscopic surgical procedure, it was initially implanted by an open surgery when invented by Dr. Lubomyr Kuzmak (New Jersey) in the 1980's. Drs. Mitiku Belachew and M. Legrand from Huy, Belgium, developed the laparoscopic application of the same. So far, the Lap Band has been the only commercially available gastric band in the USA. It is also the standard in Australia, and is very popular in Europe. However, the REALIZE (Swedish Adjustable Band) has recently been approved by FDA, USA.
Laparoscopic Surgery: also called "Minimally Invasive Surgery", is a way of performing abdominal surgical procedures through multiple small holes or incisions, which allow the introduction of the visualizing telescope (so-called camera) and multiple long instruments. The surgeons see by looking at monitors (like TV screens) which project the pictures from the camera.
Large Bowel: Same as "Large Intestine" and "Colon". See "Colon"
Liposuction: A plastic (cosmetic, aesthetic) surgical procedure that involves suctioning out a varying amount of fat from under the skin (subcutaneous fat). Liposuction is not a type of "Weight Loss Surgery" as defined by the surgical community.
Lower Body Lift: A plastic (cosmetic, aesthetic) surgical procedure that involves a combination of an abdominoplasty, plus a thigh and buttock lift. It requires a large incision around the belt line to lift the lower body.
Malabsorptive Surgery: A type of weight loss surgery that works by bypassing a portion of the small intestine. The small intestine is the organ that performs almost all of the absorption of nutrients. By bypassing a portion of the small intestine, the absorption becomes incomplete, and patients lose weight. Gastric bypass is a combined restrictive and malabsorptive procedure, but the malabsorptive component in the "proximal" gastric bypass (the most common version, with Roux limb up to 150 cm length) is significantly less than that of the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) operation. Biliopancreatic diversion is another combined restrictive and malabsorptive surgery, but the restriction is less, and the malabsorption is much more than proximal gastric bypass. So, in general, biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is considered to be primarily malabsorptive. Jejuno-ileal bypass is a purely malabsorptive procedure that has been abandoned.
Mastopexy: Same as "Breast lift".
Midband Band: A type of adjustable gastric band that is manufactured by the French company, Médical Innovation Développement, Limonest, France. It was designed with the advice and guidance of Dr. Vincent Frering of Lyon, France. The Midband is not available in USA.
Minimally Invasive Surgery: See "Laparoscopic Surgery"
MiniMizer Band: A type of adjustable gastric band that is manufactured by HospiMedical GmbH, Switzerland. It is designed to be sutured to the stomach wall itself, rather than placing gastro-gastric sutures. It is not available in USA.
Panniculectomy: A plastic (cosmetic, aesthetic) surgical procedure that involves excising the "panniculus", which is the excess hanging skin that is present below the belly-button. Panniculectomy is not a type of "Weight Loss Surgery" as defined by the surgical community.
Restrictive Surgery: A type of bariatric surgery that induces weight loss by making only a small portion of the stomach (the pouch or, in the case of sleeve gastrectomy, a tube) available to receive food from the esophagus. Typical examples of pure restrictive operations are: Adjustable Gastric Banding, Sleeve Gastrectomy, Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG). The Intragastric Balloon is not a surgical procedure, although it also produces restriction.
Roux-en-Y: A way of surgically dividing and re-arranging the intestine in a Y-shaped configuration, rather than the linear configuration. The three limbs of the Y configuration are: the "biliopancreatic limb", the "alimentary limb" and the "common channel". It was first described by the Swiss surgeon César Roux (1857-1934), as a means to bypass gastric outlet obstruction. The same concept or configuration has been employed to reconstruct the intestine as part of the bariatric surgical procedure "gastric bypass". Hence the name :"Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.
Sleeve Gastrectomy: Also called Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy. A type of weight loss surgery that is purely restrictive (see "Restrictive Surgery"). It is generally performed laparoscopically. The surgeon removes approximately 60 % of the stomach so that the stomach takes the shape of a tube or "sleeve." Classically, this operation is performed on superobese or high risk patients as a first-stage procedure, with the intention of performing gastric bypass or duodenal switch later on. There is growing trend to consider this surgery as a stand-alone operation. So far, long-term (≥ 5 yr) weight loss and comorbidity resolution data for sleeve gastrectomy are not available.
Small bowel: Same as "Small Intestine". See "Small Intestine"
Small Intestine: The part of the gut (gastro-intestinal tract) that starts from the end of the stomach, and ends with the start of the large intestine. Its parts are: Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum in that order.
Stapling: See "stomach stapling"
Stomach Stapling: Although stapling techniques are used in several bariatric and non-bariatric operations, the term "stomach stapling" is usually applied to a particular bariatric surgical procedure, that is "vertical banded gastroplasty" (VBG). The procedure includes warding off a small portion of the top-most part of the stomach (called the pouch) from the rest of the stomach, using surgical staplers. The pouch opens to the rest of the stomach via a very small opening (ostium)
The Swedish Adjustable Band: An adjustable gastric band that is manufactured by Obtech Medical AG of Switzerland (not Sweden!) It was invented by Professor Dag Hallberg, from Sweden, in 1984. Although the patent was awarded in 1985 in Sweden , Denmark and Norway, the product was manufactured in Switzerland. On September 28, 2007, Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. (a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson) announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for marketing their product, the REALIZE™ Adjustable Gastric Band. The REALIZE™ Band, has been marketed under the name Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band (SAGB) outside the U.S., and has been commercially available outside the U.S. since 1996. It is probably the most commonly used band in the UK, Scandinavia and Mexico.
Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG): The procedure includes warding off a small portion of the top-most part of the stomach (called the pouch) from the rest of the stomach, using surgical staplers. The pouch opens to the rest of the stomach via a very small opening (ostium)that is surrounded with a band, to prevent dilation of the ostium. Before the era of the adjustable gastric bands, VBG was the most common restrictive operation for surgical weight loss.
Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy: See "Sleeve Gastrectomy"
Weight Loss Surgery: Also called "Bariatric Surgery". A discipline of surgery on the alimentary tract, that includes surgical procedures that lead to weight loss. Generally, the procedures produce restriction of the ability to eat, malabsorption of nutrient, or a combination of those two mechanisms. Plastic surgery procedures (including liposuction and the different "lift" surgeries) are not considered types of "weight loss (=bariatric) surgery" by definition. Bariatric surgery is considered a long-term therapy for morbid or severe obesity. It is not considered a cosmetic surgery.
For the most up-to-date version, please visit the Bariatric Surgery Glossary
Source: The Bariatrics Lounge